Plagiarism, Copyright, and Fair Use

Fair Use

To ensure a balance of the rights of copyright owners and the public interest, the law allows you to use copyrighted works without permission — regardless of medium — when evaluation of the circumstances suggests the use is fair.
This “fair use” provision of copyright law doesn’t provide hard and fast rules to tell you whether a use qualifies as fair. Instead, the unique facts regarding a use lead you to a reasoned conclusion. Your evaluation should weigh four factors:

  1. Purpose and character: If your use is for teaching at a nonprofit educational institution, this is a factor favoring fair use.The scale tips further in favor of fair use if access is restricted to your students.
  2. Nature of copyrighted work: Is the work factbased, published, or out-of-print? These factors weigh in favor of fair use.
  3. Amount used: Using a small portion of a whole work would weigh toward fairness. But sometimes it may be fair to use an entire work (such as an image) if it is needed for your instructional purpose.
  4. Market effect: A use is more likely to be fair if it does not harm the potential market for or value of the copyrighted work.But if it does, this could weigh more heavily against fair use than the other factors. Consider each of these factors, but all of them do not have to be favorable to make your use a fair one.When the factors in the aggregate weigh toward fairness, your use is better justified.When the factors tip the scales in the other direction, your need to obtain permission from the copyright holder increases.

Don’t worry that the answer isn’t crystal clear. Just decide whether the factors weigh enough toward fairness so that you are comfortable not seeking permission. Some suggest reliance on the “golden rule” — if you were the
copyright holder,would you see the use as fair and not expect to be asked for permission?

Online Copyright Tools

Public Domain Slider

Section 108 Spinner

Exceptions for Instructors eTool

Fair Use Evaluator


Our digital world...

Lawrence Lessig has some interesting thoughts on copyright in today's digital world. Check him out at

How to Avoid Plagiarism

Give Credit Where Credit's Due

Plagiarism—the attempt to pass off the ideas, research, theories, or words of others as one's own—is a serious academic offense. Most students know when they are intentionally plagiarizing, for example copying an entire essay out of a book or buying a paper off the Internet. However, many people are tripped up by unintentional plagiarism—not giving proper credit for others' quotes, facts, ideas, or data.

When in Doubt, Give Credit

A good rule of thumb is to always give credit for any ideas that aren't yours by citing your sources. Different disciplines, publications, and professors have different standards for citation. Usually, your professor or teaching assistant will specify how you should present your citations, and if they don't, ask.